Constituents

Constituents Knowledge of herbal constituents has become critical in recent times, not only so that we can validate the efficacy and action of herbs, we can also assess which may synergistic ally complement one another in formula.

Importantly we can also assess which herbs may have potential contraindications due to the presence of some constituents, which may either be toxic or may precipitate an action that is contraindicated.

1,8 cineole 11 alpha 13-dihydrohelenalin
3-n-butyl phthalide 4-terpineol
6-desoxylamalbide 8-debenzoylpaeoniflorin
8-methoxypsoralen absinthin (sesquiterpene)
acacetin (flavonoid) acetein
acetylcholine aconitic acid
acrid resins acteoside (phenolic glycoside)
agnoside (iridoid glycoside) agropyren
alant camphor alantolactones
albiflorin albiziasaponins
albizinin albosides A&B
alkaloids alkylamides
allantoin alliin (allicin)
alloisopteropodine (oxindole alkaloid) allopterodine (oxindole alkaloid)
angelicin alpha-phellandrene
alpha-bisabolol and alpha-bisabolol oxides A & B alpha-sitosterol
alpha-pinene amarogentin
amarandentin andrographolides
amino acids anethole (essential oil)
aneol angelicin
angelic acid anthocyanidins (flavonoids)
anisaldehyde anthraquinone glycosides
anthocyanosides (flavonoids) apigenin-7-acetylglucoside
apigenin apigravin
apigetrin apiol
apiin apiumoside
apiumetin archangelenone
aporphine alkaloids arctiin (flavonoid)
arbutin armoline
archangelicin (kwannin) artemisinin (sesquiterpene lactone)
arctiopicrin (bitter glycoside) asclepiosid (glycosides)
aromatic acids asparagine
asclepiadin (glycosides) astragalosides
asiaticosides (triterpene glycosides) astringent resins
asperuloside (coumarin glycoside) atractylon (essential oil)
astringent principles aucubin (iridoid glycoside)
atractylol avenosides (saponins)
atropine (alkaloid) azulene
avenine (alkaloid) baicalein
avicularin baluchistine
bacosides (steroidal saponins) benzoic acid
baicalin berbamine
barbatic acid bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen)
benzyl alcohol beta-caryophyllene
berberine beta-phellandrene
beta-bisabalone beta-selinene
beta-lapachon (naphta-kinone) beta-sterol
beta-pinene betulic acid
beta-sitosterol bilobalides (sesquiterpenes)
betonicine (alkaloid) bisabolone oxide
betulin bitter compound
bitter glycoside
bisabolol bitter resins
bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids borneol
bitter coumarins bryonin (alkaloid)
bitter principles bursic acid
boldoglucin (glycoside) butylphthalide
botogenin caffeic acid
bupleurans caffeine
butylidene-phthalide calcium
cadinene (essential oil) californidine
caffeic acid esters camphor
caftaric acid capsaicin (flavonoid)
calcium oxalate carene (essential oil)
camphene carotenoids
canadine (isoquinoline alkaloid) carvone (essential oil)
cardenolide glycoside caryophyllene oxide
carotene cascarosides A, B, C and D
carvacrol (volatile oil) catalpol (glycoside)
caryophyllene catechol gallates
caryoptin caulophylline
casticin caulosapogenin
catechins celereoside
catechol tannins chalcones
caulosapandenine (steroid-saponin) chamaviolin
celereoin chelerythrine
celerin chelidonine (alkaloid)
chamaelirin chicoric acid
chamazulene chlorophyll
chelidonic acid chrysophanol
chelidoxyanthine cimicifugin
chlorogenic acid cineole
choline cinnamic acid
chrysosoplenol-D citral
cimicifugoside citronellal
cinnamaldehyde cnicin (glycoside)
cinncassiol, cinncassiols, cincassiol D1 & their glucosides cnidirhan (polysaccharide)
citric acid columbamine
citronellol convallatoxin
cnidilide coptisine (alkaloid)
codenine corytuberine
condensed tannins coumarrayin (essential oil)
convallatoxol cucurbitacins
corydalis L cyanogenic glycosides
coumarin cynarin
cryptotanshinones (diterpene diketones) cytisine (alkaloid)
curcumin (coumarin) desacetylmatricarin
cyclic ethers diarylheptanoids (yellow pigments)
cynaropicrin (bitter sesquiterpene lactones) dihydrofuranocoumarins
damianin diodenin
dextrin diarylheptanoids (yellow pigments)
diffractaic acid dihydrofuranocoumarins
dihydrokavain diodenin
dioscin dioscorin
dioscorine diosfenol (essential oil)
diosgenin diosmin (flavonoid glycoside)
diterpene lactone marrubiin diterpenes
dl-tetrahydropalmatin (thp) (alkaloid) E-ß-farnesene
echinacein echinacoside
eleutherans (glycans) eleutherosides
emodin enzymes
ephedrans ephedrine
epicatechins equisetonin (saponin)
ericolin (flavonoid) eriodictyol
eriodictyonic acid eriodictyonine
erythrocentaurin (bitter principle) eschscholizine
escin (saponin) essential oil
ethylsalicylate eucalyptol
eugenol acetate euparin (yellow flavonoid)
eupatorin (glycoside) evernic acid
fanunculin (glycoside) faranocoumarins
farnesene fats
fatty acids fenchone
ferulic acid ferulinacid (essential oil)
feruloyl-histamine (imidazole alkaloid) fixed oil
flavanones flavone glycoside
flavone-C-glycosides (vitexin & related compounds) flavones
flavonoids flavonols
formic acid formononetin
formonotin (iso-flavonone) forskolin
fumaric acid fumarine
furanocoumarin glucosides furanocoumarins
galangin (flavonoid) galegine (alkaloid)
galiosin gallic acid
galotannins galuteoline (glycoside)
gamma-cadinene gelsemicine (indole alkaloid)
gelsemine (indole alkaoid) gentialutin (alkaloid)
gentiamarin gentianine (alkaloid)
gentianose (trisaccharide) gentiin (glycoside)
gentiopicrine (bitter principle) gentioside
gentisin (flavonoid) geraniin (tannin)
geraniol gerariol (essential oil)
gingerol (phenolic resins) ginkgoflavonoide glycosides
ginkgolides (diterpener) ginsenosides
glechomine (bitter principle) glucides
glucoputranjivin (glucosinolate) glucosan
glucosinolates glycosides
glycosides - cardiac glycyrrhizin (triterpene saponin)
gomisins (dibenzocyclooctane lignans) grindelin (saponin)
grindeline (bitter alkaloid) guaiaconic acid (resin acid)
guaizulene (essential oil) guanidine derivatives
guariaretic acid (resin acid) gums
gurmarin (polypeptide) gymnemic acids (saponins)
gymneminacid (glycoside-acids) harmaline
harman (indol-alkaloid) harmine
harpagoside (bitter iridoidglycoside) helenalin
helonin herniarin
herniarine hesperidin
histamine (biogenic amine) humulene (essential oil)
hydrangin (glycoside) hydrastine (isoquinoline alkaloid)
hydroxycitric acid hydroxykaempferol
hydroxyphenolic acid hydroxytyrosol
hyoscine (alkaloid) hyoscyamine (alkaloid)
hyperforin hypericin
hyperoside hypo-phyllanthin (lignan)
hypophyllantin (lignan) indole alkaloids
inulin iridoids
iriversical iron
isoacteoside (phenolic glycoside) isoalantolactones
isobutylamides isochlorogenic acid
isobutylamides isochlorogenic acid
isocorydine isoferulic acid
isoflavones isoimperatorin
isopimpinellin isopropenyltolune
isoquercetin (flavonoid) isoquercitrin
isoquinoline alkaloids isorhamnetin
isosalicin isotanshinones (diterpene diketones)
isothebaine isothujone
jasmone jatrorrhizine
jiandlutosider (iridoide glycoside) jioglutins (iridoid compound)
jioglutosides (iridoid compound) jujubosides
kaempferol kava pyrones (lactones)
kavain khellin (furanochromone)
kutkoside l-stachydrin
labdadienes laburnine (alkaloid)
lamalbide lapachol
laurifoline (bitter alkaloid) lecithin
leonuride (iridoid glucoside) leonurin (alkaloids)
leptandrin lignan nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGS)
ligustilide limolene
limonene limonoids (azadirachtin, nimbandiol, nimbine, nimbolide)
linalol (essential oil) linalool
linalyl acetate liquiritin
lobeline lugustilid
luparol (essential oil) lupeol (plant sterol)
lupulin (bitter resin compound) luteolin
luteolin 7-apiosylglucoside luteolin derivatives (flavonoids)
macrocyclic lactones magnoflorine
malic acid mannitol
marubiin (diterpene glycoside) matricarin
matricin matricine
maysin melilotoside
menthol menthone (essential oil)
mentol menton
menyanthin (bitter glycoside) methoxybenzaldehyde
methoxylated curcumins methoxylated flavones
methyl salicylate methyl-eugenol
methylamine (biogenic amine) methylanthranilate (essential oil)
methylcysteine (alkaloid) methylxanthines
methysticin (kavalaktone) minerals
monoterpene hydrocarbons monoterpenoid glycosides
monoterpenoids monotropitin (gaultherin)
mucilage myricin (essential oil)
myricinic acids myrtillin (flavonoid)
n-alkanes n-butylidene phthalide
naphtaquinones naringenin 5-glucoside (flavanone)
neo-ruscandenin (steroid-saponin) neoruscogenin (steroidal saponin)
nicotine (alkaloid) nitidine (bitter alkaloid)
nodakenetin nodakenin
nor-dihydranduareti-acid (ndga) nupharine (alkaloid)
nymphaline obamegine
odoratin (alkaloid) oil
oleoresin oleuropein
oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) oligosaccharides
oshol (essential oil) osthenol
osthol oxalic acid
oxyacanthine oxyberberine
oxypaeoniflorin p-coumaric acid
paeoniflorin paeonol
palbinone palustrine (alkaloid)
paniculatin (essential oil) papaveraceae type alkaloids
paranocoumarins parillin
parthenolide (sesquiterpene lactones) passiflorine (indole alkaloid)
pavine alkaloids (from non-narcotic opium alkaloid papaverine) pectin
penduletin pentagalloyl glucose
peonan SA & SB pervincamine (indole alkaloid)
phatalides phellandrene (essential oil)
phenol-carbolylic acids phenolic acids
phenolic carboxylic acids phenolic glycosides
phenols phenylcarboxylic acids
phenylethyl alcohol phosphorus
phthalides phyllanthin (lignan)
phyllantin phyllyrin (lignan glycoside)
phyto-oestrogenic compound phytoestrogens
phytolaccine (alkaloid) phytosterol
picroside pinene (essential oil)
pinocembrin (flavonoid) plant acids (acidic mucilage)
plant phenolic acid derivatives plumbagin
polyacetylenes polyphenolic acid
polyphenolics polyphenols
polysaccharides populin
potassium potassium bitartrates
proanthocyanidins proazulenes
procyanidin B2, B5 & C1 procyanidins
protein protoberberine alkaloids
prunasin (cyananden glycoside) pseudoephedrine
pseudohypericin psoralen
punarvavine (alkaloid) pungent principles (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin etc.)
pyrrolizidine alkaloids quercetin glucosides
quercetin glycosides quercimeritrin
quercitin racemoside
ranunculin rebaudioside A & B
rehmaglutins (iridoide glycoside) resin
resin acids rhein
rhynchophylline (oxindole alkaloid) rosmarinic acid
rosmarinicin rotundifuran
rugosin-D ruscandenin (steroid-saponin)
ruscogenin (steroidal saponin) rutaretin
rutin sabinene
saccharose saikosaponins
salicin salicortin (phenol-glycosides)
salicosides salicylaldehyde
salicylic acid salicylic glycosides
salviatannin salviol (essential oil)
sambunigrin (cyanogenic glycoside) sanguinarine (alkaloid)
sapogenin oleanolic acid (triterpenoid saponin) saponin glycosides
saponins sarsapandenin (steroidal saponins)
sarsapic acid sarsasapogenin
sarsasaponin schizandrins (dibenzocyclooctane lignans)
scopoletin scutelarein (flavonoide glycoside)
scutellarin secoiridoid glycoside
sedanenolide sempervirine (indole alkaloid)
senkyunolide seselin
sesquiterpene bitters sesquiterpene ketones (including ar-turmerone)
sesquiterpene lactones sesquiterpenes
sesquiterpenoids sesquiterpine
silica silica acids
silymarin (flavonoid lignans) sitosterol
smilagenin smilasaponin
solaceine (alkaloid) solanine (alkaloid)
spathulenol spiraein
spiraeoside (quercetin 4'-glucoside) spireine
spiroether stachydrine (alkaloid)
starch steroidal saponins
sterols steviol
steviolbioside stevioside
stigmastadienone stigmasterol
sucrose tannic acid
tannin tanshinones (diterpene diketones)
taraxacin taraxacoside
taraxerol tartrates
temberatine (alkaloid) tenuifolin (triterpenoid saponin)
terpenes terpenic ketones
terpenoids terpin-4-ol
tetrahydrostilben glycoside tetramethylpyrazine (TMP)
tetrandrin (isoquinolin alkaloid) thujane
thujin thujone
thymol thymol derivative
trifoliin (phenolic glycoside) trigonelline (alkaloid)
trillarin (steroidal saponin) trillin
triterpene glycosides triterpenes
triterpenoid saponins triterpenoids
tylophorine (alkaloid) tylophorinine (alkaloid)
tyramin tyramine (biogenic amine)
umbelliferone urosol (triterpene)
usnic acid valepotriates (iridoid esters)
valerianic acid vanillic acid
vasicine vasicinol
vasicinone verbascoside
verbenalin (bitter glycoside) verbenine (bitter glycoside)
viburnin (bitter glycoside) vincamine (indole alkaloid)
violaquercitrin (flavonoid) violarutin (glycoside)
violin (bitter alkaloid) viscotoxin (cardioactive polypeptide protein)
vitamins vitexilactone
vitexin (glycoside) vitexinin (glycoside)
volatile alkaloid volatile oleoresins
wandonin (flavonoide glycoside) wax
withanolides (steroidal lactones) wogonin
xanthones xanthophyll
xanthotoxin xanthotoxol
xylan yamogenin (sapogenin)
yangonin yuehchukene (indole alkaloid)
zingiberene zingiberole
ziziphin zizyphic acid