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Constituents

Knowledge of herbal constituents has become critical in recent times, not only so that we can validate the efficacy and action of herbs, we can also assess which may synergistically complement one another in formulae. Importantly we can also assess which herbs may have potential contraindications due to the presence of some constituents, which may either be toxic or may precipitate an action that is contraindicated.


1,8 cineole  11 alpha 13-dihydrohelenalin 
3-n-butyl phthalide  4-terpineol 
6-desoxylamalbide  8-debenzoylpaeoniflorin 
8-methoxypsoralen  absinthin (sesquiterpene) 
acacetin (flavonoid)  acetein 
acetylcholine  aconitic acid 
acrid resins  acteoside (phenolic glycoside) 
agnoside (iridoid glycoside)  agropyren 
alant camphor  alantolactones 
albiflorin  albiziasaponins 
albizinin  albosides A&B 
alkaloids  alkylamides 
allantoin  alliin (allicin) 
alloisopteropodine (oxindole alkaloid)  allopterodine (oxindole alkaloid) 
alpha-bisabolol and alpha-bisabolol oxides A & B  alpha-phellandrene 
alpha-pinene  alpha-sitosterol 
amarandentin  amarogentin 
amino acids  andrographolides 
aneol  anethole (essential oil) 
angelic acid  angelicin 
anisaldehyde  anthocyanidins (flavonoids) 
anthocyanosides (flavonoids)  anthraquinone glycosides 
apigenin  apigenin-7-acetylglucoside 
apigetrin  apigravin 
apiin  apiol 
apiumetin  apiumoside 
aporphine alkaloids  aquifoline 
arbutin  archangelenone 
archangelicin (kwannin)  arctiin (flavonoid) 
arctiopicrin (bitter glycoside)  armoline 
aromatic acids  artemisinin (sesquiterpene lactone) 
asclepiadin (glycosides)  asclepiosid (glycosides) 
asiaticosides (triterpene glycosides)  asparagine 
asperuloside (coumarin glycoside)  astragalosides 
astringent principles  astringent resins 
atractylol  atractylon (essential oil) 
atropine (alkaloid)  aucubin (iridoid glycoside) 
avenine (alkaloid)  avenosides (saponins) 
avicularin  azulene 
bacosides (steroidal saponins)  baicalein 
baicalin  baluchistine 
barbatic acid  benzoic acid 
benzyl alcohol  berbamine 
berberine  bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) 
beta-bisabalone  beta-caryophyllene 
beta-lapachon (naphta-kinone)  beta-phellandrene 
beta-pinene  beta-selinene 
beta-sitosterol  beta-sterol 
betonicine (alkaloid)  betulic acid 
betulin  bilobalides (sesquiterpenes) 
bisabolol  bisabolone oxide 
bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids  bitter compound 
bitter coumarins  bitter glycoside 
bitter principles  bitter resins 
boldoglucin (glycoside)  borneol 
botogenin  bryonin (alkaloid) 
bupleurans  bursic acid 
butylidene-phthalide  butylphthalide 
cadinene (essential oil)  caffeic acid 
caffeic acid esters  caffeine 
caftaric acid  calcium 
calcium oxalate  californidine 
camphene  camphor 
canadine (isoquinoline alkaloid)  capsaicin (flavonoid) 
cardenolide glycoside  carene (essential oil) 
carotene  carotenoids 
carvacrol (volatile oil)  carvone (essential oil) 
caryophyllene  caryophyllene oxide 
caryoptin  cascarosides A, B, C and D 
casticin  catalpol (glycoside) 
catechins  catechol gallates 
catechol tannins  caulophylline 
caulosapandenine (steroid-saponin)  caulosapogenin 
celereoin  celereoside 
celerin  chalcones 
chamaelirin  chamaviolin 
chamazulene  chelerythrine 
chelidonic acid  chelidonine (alkaloid) 
chelidoxyanthine  chicoric acid 
chlorogenic acid  chlorophyll 
choline  chrysophanol 
chrysosoplenol-D  cimicifugin 
cimicifugoside  cineole 
cinnamaldehyde  cinnamic acid 
cinncassiol, cinncassiols, cincassiol D1 & their glucosides  citral 
citric acid  citronellal 
citronellol  cnicin (glycoside) 
cnidilide  cnidirhan (polysaccharide) 
codenine  columbamine 
condensed tannins  convallatoxin 
convallatoxol  coptisine (alkaloid) 
corydalis L  corytuberine 
coumarin  coumarrayin (essential oil) 
cryptotanshinones (diterpene diketones)  cucurbitacins 
curcumin (coumarin)  cyanogenic glycosides 
cyclic ethers  cynarin 
cynaropicrin (bitter sesquiterpene lactones)  cytisine (alkaloid) 
damianin  desacetylmatricarin 
dextrin  diarylheptanoids (yellow pigments) 
diffractaic acid  dihydrofuranocoumarins 
dihydrokavain  diodenin 
dioscin  dioscorin 
dioscorine  diosfenol (essential oil) 
diosgenin  diosmin (flavonoid glycoside) 
diterpene lactone marrubiin  diterpenes 
dl-tetrahydropalmatin (thp) (alkaloid)  E-ß-farnesene 
echinacein  echinacoside 
eleutherans (glycans)  eleutherosides 
emodin  enzymes 
ephedrans  ephedrine 
epicatechins  equisetonin (saponin) 
ericolin (flavonoid)  eriodictyol 
eriodictyonic acid  eriodictyonine 
erythrocentaurin (bitter principle)  eschscholizine 
escin (saponin)  essential oil 
ethylsalicylate  eucalyptol 
eugenol acetate  euparin (yellow flavonoid) 
eupatorin (glycoside)  evernic acid 
fanunculin (glycoside)  faranocoumarins 
farnesene  fats 
fatty acids  fenchone 
ferulic acid  ferulinacid (essential oil) 
feruloyl-histamine (imidazole alkaloid)  fixed oil 
flavanones  flavone glycoside 
flavone-C-glycosides (vitexin & related compounds)  flavones 
flavonoids  flavonols 
formic acid  formononetin 
formonotin (iso-flavonone)  forskolin 
fumaric acid  fumarine 
furanocoumarin glucosides  furanocoumarins 
galangin (flavonoid)  galegine (alkaloid) 
galiosin  gallic acid 
galotannins  galuteoline (glycoside) 
gamma-cadinene  gelsemicine (indole alkaloid) 
gelsemine (indole alkaoid)  gentialutin (alkaloid) 
gentiamarin  gentianine (alkaloid) 
gentianose (trisaccharide)  gentiin (glycoside) 
gentiopicrine (bitter principle)  gentioside 
gentisin (flavonoid)  geraniin (tannin) 
geraniol  gerariol (essential oil) 
gingerol (phenolic resins)  ginkgoflavonoide glycosides 
ginkgolides (diterpener)  ginsenosides 
glechomine (bitter principle)  glucides 
glucoputranjivin (glucosinolate)  glucosan 
glucosinolates  glycosides 
glycosides - cardiac  glycyrrhizin (triterpene saponin) 
gomisins (dibenzocyclooctane lignans)  grindelin (saponin) 
grindeline (bitter alkaloid)  guaiaconic acid (resin acid) 
guaizulene (essential oil)  guanidine derivatives 
guariaretic acid (resin acid)  gums 
gurmarin (polypeptide)  gymnemic acids (saponins) 
gymneminacid (glycoside-acids)  harmaline 
harman (indol-alkaloid)  harmine 
harpagoside (bitter iridoidglycoside)  helenalin 
helonin  herniarin 
herniarine  hesperidin 
histamine (biogenic amine)  humulene (essential oil) 
hydrangin (glycoside)  hydrastine (isoquinoline alkaloid) 
hydroxycitric acid  hydroxykaempferol 
hydroxyphenolic acid  hydroxytyrosol 
hyoscine (alkaloid)  hyoscyamine (alkaloid) 
hyperforin  hypericin 
hyperoside  hypo-phyllanthin (lignan) 
hypophyllantin (lignan)  indole alkaloids 
inulin  iridoids 
iriversical  iron 
isoacteoside (phenolic glycoside)  isoalantolactones 
isobutylamides  isochlorogenic acid 
isocorydine  isoferulic acid 
isoflavones  isoimperatorin 
isopimpinellin  isopropenyltolune 
isoquercetin (flavonoid)  isoquercitrin 
isoquinoline alkaloids  isorhamnetin 
isosalicin  isotanshinones (diterpene diketones) 
isothebaine  isothujone 
jasmone  jatrorrhizine 
jiandlutosider (iridoide glycoside)  jioglutins (iridoid compound) 
jioglutosides (iridoid compound)  jujubosides 
kaempferol  kava pyrones (lactones) 
kavain  khellin (furanochromone) 
kutkoside  l-stachydrin 
labdadienes  laburnine (alkaloid) 
lamalbide  lapachol 
laurifoline (bitter alkaloid)  lecithin 
leonuride (iridoid glucoside)  leonurin (alkaloids) 
leptandrin  lignan nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGS) 
ligustilide  limolene 
limonene  limonoids (azadirachtin, nimbandiol, nimbine, nimbolide) 
linalol (essential oil)  linalool 
linalyl acetate  liquiritin 
lobeline  lugustilid 
luparol (essential oil)  lupeol (plant sterol) 
lupulin (bitter resin compound)  luteolin 
luteolin 7-apiosylglucoside  luteolin derivatives (flavonoids) 
macrocyclic lactones  magnoflorine 
malic acid  mannitol 
marubiin (diterpene glycoside)  matricarin 
matricin  matricine 
maysin  melilotoside 
menthol  menthone (essential oil) 
mentol  menton 
menyanthin (bitter glycoside)  methoxybenzaldehyde 
methoxylated curcumins  methoxylated flavones 
methyl salicylate  methyl-eugenol 
methylamine (biogenic amine)  methylanthranilate (essential oil) 
methylcysteine (alkaloid)  methylxanthines 
methysticin (kavalaktone)  minerals 
monoterpene hydrocarbons  monoterpenoid glycosides 
monoterpenoids  monotropitin (gaultherin) 
mucilage  myricin (essential oil) 
myricinic acids  myrtillin (flavonoid) 
n-alkanes  n-butylidene phthalide 
naphtaquinones  naringenin 5-glucoside (flavanone) 
neo-ruscandenin (steroid-saponin)  neoruscogenin (steroidal saponin) 
nicotine (alkaloid)  nitidine (bitter alkaloid) 
nodakenetin  nodakenin 
nor-dihydranduareti-acid (ndga)  nupharine (alkaloid) 
nymphaline  obamegine 
odoratin (alkaloid)  oil 
oleoresin  oleuropein 
oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs)  oligosaccharides 
oshol (essential oil)  osthenol 
osthol  oxalic acid 
oxyacanthine  oxyberberine 
oxypaeoniflorin  p-coumaric acid 
paeoniflorin  paeonol 
palbinone  palustrine (alkaloid) 
paniculatin (essential oil)  papaveraceae type alkaloids 
paranocoumarins  parillin 
parthenolide (sesquiterpene lactones)  passiflorine (indole alkaloid) 
pavine alkaloids (from non-narcotic opium alkaloid papaverine)  pectin 
penduletin  pentagalloyl glucose 
peonan SA & SB  pervincamine (indole alkaloid) 
phatalides  phellandrene (essential oil) 
phenol-carbolylic acids  phenolic acids 
phenolic carboxylic acids  phenolic glycosides 
phenols  phenylcarboxylic acids 
phenylethyl alcohol  phosphorus 
phthalides  phyllanthin (lignan) 
phyllantin  phyllyrin (lignan glycoside) 
phyto-oestrogenic compound  phytoestrogens 
phytolaccine (alkaloid)  phytosterol 
picroside  pinene (essential oil) 
pinocembrin (flavonoid)  plant acids (acidic mucilage) 
plant phenolic acid derivatives  plumbagin 
polyacetylenes  polyphenolic acid 
polyphenolics  polyphenols 
polysaccharides  populin 
potassium  potassium bitartrates 
proanthocyanidins  proazulenes 
procyanidin B2, B5 & C1  procyanidins 
protein  protoberberine alkaloids 
prunasin (cyananden glycoside)  pseudoephedrine 
pseudohypericin  psoralen 
punarvavine (alkaloid)  pungent principles (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin etc.) 
pyrrolizidine alkaloids  quercetin glucosides 
quercetin glycosides  quercimeritrin 
quercitin  racemoside 
ranunculin  rebaudioside A & B 
rehmaglutins (iridoide glycoside)  resin 
resin acids  rhein 
rhynchophylline (oxindole alkaloid)  rosmarinic acid 
rosmarinicin  rotundifuran 
rugosin-D  ruscandenin (steroid-saponin) 
ruscogenin (steroidal saponin)  rutaretin 
rutin  sabinene 
saccharose  saikosaponins 
salicin  salicortin (phenol-glycosides) 
salicosides  salicylaldehyde 
salicylic acid  salicylic glycosides 
salviatannin  salviol (essential oil) 
sambunigrin (cyanogenic glycoside)  sanguinarine (alkaloid) 
sapogenin oleanolic acid (triterpenoid saponin)  saponin glycosides 
saponins  sarsapandenin (steroidal saponins) 
sarsapic acid  sarsasapogenin 
sarsasaponin  schizandrins (dibenzocyclooctane lignans) 
scopoletin  scutelarein (flavonoide glycoside) 
scutellarin  secoiridoid glycoside 
sedanenolide  sempervirine (indole alkaloid) 
senkyunolide  seselin 
sesquiterpene bitters  sesquiterpene ketones (including ar-turmerone) 
sesquiterpene lactones  sesquiterpenes 
sesquiterpenoids  sesquiterpine 
silica  silica acids 
silymarin (flavonoid lignans)  sitosterol 
smilagenin  smilasaponin 
solaceine (alkaloid)  solanine (alkaloid) 
spathulenol  spiraein 
spiraeoside (quercetin 4'-glucoside)  spireine 
spiroether  stachydrine (alkaloid) 
starch  steroidal saponins 
sterols  steviol 
steviolbioside  stevioside 
stigmastadienone  stigmasterol 
sucrose  tannic acid 
tannin  tanshinones (diterpene diketones) 
taraxacin  taraxacoside 
taraxerol  tartrates 
temberatine (alkaloid)  tenuifolin (triterpenoid saponin) 
terpenes  terpenic ketones 
terpenoids  terpin-4-ol 
tetrahydrostilben glycoside  tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) 
tetrandrin (isoquinolin alkaloid)  thujane 
thujin  thujone 
thymol  thymol derivative 
trifoliin (phenolic glycoside)  trigonelline (alkaloid) 
trillarin (steroidal saponin)  trillin 
triterpene glycosides  triterpenes 
triterpenoid saponins  triterpenoids 
tylophorine (alkaloid)  tylophorinine (alkaloid) 
tyramin  tyramine (biogenic amine) 
umbelliferone  urosol (triterpene) 
usnic acid  valepotriates (iridoid esters) 
valerianic acid  vanillic acid 
vasicine  vasicinol 
vasicinone  verbascoside 
verbenalin (bitter glycoside)  verbenine (bitter glycoside) 
viburnin (bitter glycoside)  vincamine (indole alkaloid) 
violaquercitrin (flavonoid)  violarutin (glycoside) 
violin (bitter alkaloid)  viscotoxin (cardioactive polypeptide protein) 
vitamins  vitexilactone 
vitexin (glycoside)  vitexinin (glycoside) 
volatile alkaloid  volatile oleoresins 
wandonin (flavonoide glycoside)  wax 
withanolides (steroidal lactones)  wogonin 
xanthones  xanthophyll 
xanthotoxin  xanthotoxol 
xylan  yamogenin (sapogenin) 
yangonin  yuehchukene (indole alkaloid) 
zingiberene  zingiberole 
ziziphin  zizyphic acid 




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